We know that diamonds are the kings of rock. Some of them are known worldwide for its uniqueness and traditions associated with them. They are admired and are affected by their mystical beauty for centuries. We offer you an overview of "the most famous diamonds of the world"
These famous diamonds as "Cullinan", "Regent", "Shah", "Black Eagles", "Eureka" will be imprinted in the history of mankind for centuries, because they are not only aesthetic value, but also a historical confirm mineral wealth of the earth . Many diamonds are fraught with mystical secret, unsolved riddle. Because of these stones people were killed, destroyed entire countries, committed treason. Man has always tried to dominate the world, but without the power of jewelry - it is nothing. That went over these world-famous stones from hand to hand, leaving an imprint on the lives of their owners. To date, we just have to admire their beauty and unusual close confusing history.
"Cullinan" one of the largest and most famous diamonds
The largest and most famous ever found diamonds are still considered the "Cullinan" 101 years ago, on 25 January 1905, in the British colony of Transvaal (now a province in South Africa) was found the biggest diamond in the history of mankind, rock 'pure "weighed 3106 carats (621.2), and had dimensions of 100 x 65 x 50 mm.
During the evening crawl mine manager Frederick Wells said on the wall of a career point, gleaming in the rays of the setting sun. The point is 9 meters from the top edge of the pit. Soon, workers removed a diamond mine 100 x 65 x 50 mm .. It later emerged that the diamond was a fragment of a larger crystal, unfortunately, was not found.
Curiosity demonstrated to everyone in the bank in Johannesburg. The cost of the diamond was so high that a few years it was not the buyer. There were even proposals to be thrown off the purchase of stone - a shilling from each resident. However, the discovery of the precious find another use: after the Anglo-Boer War, the rulers of the Transvaal Republic as a sign of reconciliation, decided to present an expensive gift to the King of England Edward VII. In 1907, the diamond was bought for 150 thousand pounds sterling, and presented to the King's birthday.
It should be noted that even at the prices in those years the cost of discovery was no less than 8 million pounds. Today, the cost of raw diamonds would equal the cost of 94 tons of gold. Before you forward a stone in England, its insured, rented a special ship with a cabin-room safe and an army of watchful guards. However, if the clever thieves still stole the goods, he threw them into a shock: after all, in their hands to hit a dummy, "Cullinan". While this stone came to England in the regular post parcel.
The new owner did not appreciate the gift at first, calling it "Steklyashka." In 1908 the brilliant "Cullinan" It was decided to split into pieces, and facet, for which the stone was sent Asskor brothers - the famous jewelers of Amsterdam. Before you break the stone into pieces, Joseph Asskor almost half a year studying it. But even identifying points of the first blow, he hit on that decided not to, instructing it to student. At the time of applying the decisive blow Josef Asskor excitement fainted. But the calculation was correct. Upon completion of all work nearly four years later saw the light two large, seven medium-and ninety-sixth extraordinary purity of small diamonds.
The largest part of the diamond was faceted pear shaped (530.2 carats) and was named "Star of Africa" or "Cullinan-I».
Today it is the most famous and large diamond - he adorns the top of the royal scepter of the UK.
The second piece got the form of "emerald", it weighs 317.4 carats and was named "Cullinan-II» and the British crown adorns ...
Part of the diamond, left after processing the first two diamonds were still two large faceted diamond, "Cullinan-III», 94,4 carats, and "Cullinan-IV», 63,65 carats, and smaller diamonds, called the "Small Stars Africa ".
Cullinan V, is also very famous diamond
Now from the 3106 carat only a little over 34% - 1063.65 carats. What accounts for such losses - the imperfection of technology or hidden defects stone - is unknown.
Damned "Black Eagles"
Its origin and steel-gray color remains a mystery. Some have suggested that this was once a stone "Eye of Brahma" weighing 195 carats, is inserted into a statue in the area of Pondicherry. Others believe that the diamond was kept in a casket in hopes of Russian princess Orlova. Meanwhile, the princess by that name ever existed. In addition, the black diamond was never mentioned in India, where this color is considered a bad sign. Finally, a square step cut stone appeared no earlier than one hundred years ago!
Wherever there was the "Black Eagles", whose weight is currently 67.50 carats, Winston jeweler from New York, exhibited for everyone to see it as a gimmick, and then put it together with other diamonds in a platinum necklace, which is a lot of time passed from hand to hand. The last time it was sold at auction "Sotheby's" in New York.
In mystically beautiful black diamond "Orlov" dark past. It is shrouded in mystery and rumor, and the "Eagles" has a bad reputation cursed stone, but at the same time illuminates the career of the best jewelers. And, of course, there are always people willing to pay him big money.
This famous diamond can be rightly described as "historic." Its history goes back a hundred or two hundred years, not, as much as twenty centuries (56 BC). According to Indian tradition, on the banks of the Yamuna River found a child in his forehead was burning fine diamond and it was the "Koh-i-Noor." The daughter picked up the baby elephant mahouts and took him to court. This child was none other than the Carnot, son of the god of the sun. Stone, the net weight of which was then 600 carats and was mounted on a statue of the god Shiva in place of the third eye, carrying enlightenment.
In the annals of this diamond was first mentioned in 1304. Then it belonged to the Rajah of Malwa. Then, during two centuries of stone were not known. Only in 1526 it was discovered among the treasures of Babur, the founder of the Mughal dynasty. The Mughals were stored stone for two hundred years, until 1739, when the ruler of Persia, Nadir Shah sacked Delhi. However, among the spoils of the legendary diamond was not: the defeated Shah put it in the folds of his turban. But Nadir Shah, was trickier. According to custom, the winner of the enemy suit after a magnificent banquet, at which former enemies exchanged their turbans as a sign of peace. With this trick, Nadir Shah, took out the maximum benefit from his triumph. After the assassination of the Shah in 1747, his son, who inherited the stone, rather, according to legend died under torture, but did not give a legendary diamond.
Then the "Koh-i-Noor" many times changed owners, was in the hands of the Afghans, Sikhs, and in 1849 was kidnapped by the British who seized Lahore. Diamond under the strictest guard was sent on board the "Medea" in London, where he was awarded the Queen Victoria on the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the East India Company. He appeared in front of Her Majesty's subjects at the World Exhibition in 1851 at the Crystal Palace. However, Stone has not made a sensation: for Indian cut his brilliance was pretty dull. The Queen led the famous diamond cutter from Amsterdam Diamond Voorzangera of Fire Company and ordered him faceted "mountain of light". This cut that reduced the weight of the diamond from 186 to 108.93 carats, has brought him worldwide fame timeless.
Now the "Kohinoor" is inserted into the Royal state crown.
"Eureka" - the diamond-bearing war
Some famous diamonds are brought to their owners die, while others become real talismans that protect against all kinds of troubles and miseries. But few can boast of a stone that he unleashed a real war, because of the deaths of thousands of people. Most interesting is that the weight of the diamond quite small - to handle it weighed 21.25 carats, and then - just 10.73. And do not even surprising story of his discovery, but then, what a revolution in the world made a crystal named "Eureka."
A guy named Erasmus Jacobs lived with his family in the Orange River, on the farm De Kalk, in the outskirts of the city Houptaun. While searching on the river bank stick for cleaning drains. The young man noticed among pebbles shiny stone. That was so beautiful, that guy took it to the farm and gave his sister Louise.
As it turned out, near the confluence of the Vaal and Orange, in a mountainous area called the West Grikvalend, diamonds come across very often. But mostly they were small and had a yellowish tinge, which reduced their price. However, this did not stop all the adventurers and easy money to rush here at a breakneck pace. Of course, the British could not ignore these lands and forcibly tried to attach the ground drills to its colonies. The Boers still rallied and led the revolt, put the invaders from the country, but Western Grikvalend the British left behind him.
Britain declared war under the pretext of human rights violations by the Boers, and collecting half a million army against 80,000 Boers waited a first strike. Turning to the arbitrator and getting no answer, the Boers themselves have caused it. Heavy war has cost the Boers in 4000 killed on the battlefield, 26 000 elderly people, women and children died of hunger and surrounded by barbed wire, and 20 000 wounded. May 31, 1902 in Vereniginge peace was signed, depriving this freedom-loving people of independence. And at that moment no one even thought that this whole war started because of a small pebble under the name "Eureka".
"Regent" The most bloody gem
Regent ("Pitt"), one of the well-known historical gems, the largest (weight of 136.75 carats) of diamonds are stored in the Louvre. Found in the mines of Golconda in India in 1700, slave, an Indian, who cut thigh and put the stone in the wound under the bandage. English sailor had promised freedom to the slave for a diamond, but lured him to the ship, took a stone and killed him.
Diamond, he sold for 1,000 pounds British governor of Fort St. George Pitt, whose name was called stone until 1717, when the Duke of Orleans, regent of France, bought a stone for Louis XV of 3375 thousand francs.
In 1792, when the looting of the royal palace stone has disappeared, but was later found. The Republican government of France has laid the diamond rich Moscow merchant cod; bought it Bonaparte (Napoleon I), ordered to straighten it in the hilt of his sword. In 1886, when the sale of the treasures of the French crown "Regent" was bought for 6 million francs for the Louvre.
One well-known historical gems, diamonds (88 carats weight), kept in the Diamond Fund of Russia in Moscow. On the stone engraved with inscriptions in Persian language, telling about his previous owner: in 1591 the diamond belonged to Burhan Nizam Shah II of the Mughal dynasty, in 1641 - Shah Jahan, in 1824 - Shah Qajar, Fath-Ali, Bishop of Persia. Diamond does not cut, but only polished, preserved part of the natural faces of the octahedron. The shape of its elongated at one end of a deep cut through the annular groove for hanging a stone.
Stone has long hung over the Mughal throne as a mascot. In 1829, after the defeat of the Russian embassy in Tehran and the murder of the poet and diplomat Griboyedov, in St. Petersburg had been sent a delegation headed by the son of the Shah Khosrow-Mirza. Among the "redemptive gifts" Nicholas I, was awarded on behalf of the Shah's old diamond.
The famous stone "Eagles"
Diamond Orlov, Grigory Orlov presented to Empress Catherine II as a sign of his ardent love for her in 1775. Diamond is known from the time when he was inserted into the eye of the Idol of Brahma adorned palace in India, and later was transferred to Nadir Shah.
Orlov diamond has a slight bluish-green tint. It is decorated with the imperial scepter with dimensions 32mmX35mmX31mm. According to legend, when the Russian in 1812, expect the capture of Moscow by Napoleon diamond was hidden in the tomb of a priest. However, Napoleon deliberately sought out a place where there was a hidden jewel, and when reached out to him, arose from the grave of the priest pronounces the ghost spells against armies of Napoleon. Thus Napoleon escaped without touching the diamond. Diamond stores in the Diamond Fund of the Kremlin.
Mystery Diamond "Hope" ("Hope")
Hope Diamond (born Hope - Hope) - one of the most famous historical diamonds. He is currently stored in the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (Washington, USA). The mass of the blue diamond of 45.52 carats. The geometric dimensions of stone: 25.60 x 21.78 x 12.00 mm. Diamond is faceted to form a pillow.
Hope Diamond is surrounded by the largest number of "sinister" mysteries and having "bad" slavoy.Tak he called the "Blue Tavernier", "Blue Diamond French crown," "French Blue", "Blue Frenchman," "Blue Hope" ...
The story of the famous Hope diamond began in the mid XVII century, when the famous French merchant Jean Baptiste Tavernier, purchased a large blue diamond, weighing 112 3 / 16 carats (about 115 carats in the modern metric). This stone was awkwardly faceted and the shape of a triangle. Experts agree that the diamond was mined, most likely on the field in Golconda Kollur (India).
In 1668, Tavernier sold the stone to the King of France Louis XIV. In 1673 the court jeweler pereogranil it in 67-carat diamond (about 69 carats in the modern metric).
Then no one has yet thought about the curse of God hanging over the owners of the diamond. But first to the fore after the stone, "brought with him a" plague. Terrible disease has overtaken Europe as the time after the appearance of an unusual crystal, so the priests dubbed stone cursed. The first "victim" of the diamond is considered Tavernier, who in one of the regular travel was mauled by dogs.
Favourite King soon fell into disfavor, and the diamond back to Louis XIV. Once again, dancing at the ball, "Sun King" came on a rusty nail and died of gangrene. After his death the diamond turned to Marie Antoinette. Beautiful diamond princess Lamballe interested and gave her his queen abuse. After the diamond back to the owner, the Princess was murdered. And after a while and beheaded Marie Antoinette.
Passing from hand to hand and depriving people of life, the stone was finally bought by an Irish banker and collector of Hope, in whose honor and its name.
Bought for his wife a diamond "Hope" Sultan Abdul Hamid II, after a while lost his beloved wife, which fell into the hands of rapists and murderers. And later, the Sultan himself up his life in exile after his overthrow of the throne of subjects. The next owner of the stone was a Russian prince Korytkovsky (in another version Kandovitsky), who presented a diamond Parisian dancer Ledyu. However, the curse caught up with them and when, after some time the prince shot his mistress in a fit of jealousy, and he fell victim to assassination. Proficient in the future bloody brilliant Spaniard had drowned. As well as a couple in the movie "Titanic."
In the end, "Hope" went to Evelyn Walsh McLean - socialite from Washington, who consecrated the first stone in the church, which is not saved the misery of her family. My husband took to drink and ended up in a lunatic asylum, the first son hit by a car in early childhood, and his daughter committed suicide by swallowing pills. And after the death of her grandmother, who had bequeathed her jewels grandchildren, her beloved granddaughter died at the age of 25 years.
Cursed diamond was sold to a cynical and superstitious Harry Winston jewelry dealer. Why did not affect his curse - still argue. Maybe because he did not believe in him, maybe because exposing the diamond to the public, raising money for charity? But for a long time Harry did not take risks, and therefore sent a brilliant through the mail. So one of the most famous and "blood" diamonds came to the Smithsonian in Washington, after leaving, thus, with all its owners. Than consider the history of the stone - a beautiful legend, a curse or a chain of fateful coincidences - you decide, but at the moment very few people want to have this jewel.
Diamond "Hope» (Hope Diamond) is considered the largest blue diamond in the world. It was he who first showed people that the blue diamonds can, under certain conditions to become a red-red like a flame.
Puzzle that tormented scientists for years: why the diamond continues to glow red for a few seconds after the stone illuminated by ultraviolet light (photo by John Nels Hatleberg).
Brilliant Golden Jubilee (gold brown)
Discovered in 1986 in South Africa, this diamond, which was originally called Brown unnamed, weighed 755.5 carats. Because of its golden brown diamond has had a brilliant and magical aura of his heart.
This is a child of South Africa and one of the most famous creations Gabi Tolkowsky, which limited the stone. Brilliant brown-yellow color for a long time had the title not named Brown (Unnamed Brown). But in 1997, Stone purchased as a gift to the Thai King Bhumibol Adulyadej on the 50th, the "golden" birthday rule of the monarch. That's when Stone finally got a name. Diamond Price unknown.
"Incomparable» Incomparable Diamond
This diamond is called "Peerless" was found in the early 1980s in the Congo. Diamond Weight - 890 carats, the Royal Museum of Ontario (Canada) exhibited brilliant "Incomparable» (Incomparable Diamond). This is the third largest ever in the world faceted diamond. The weight of the diamond after cutting is 407.08 carats. Noble golden yellow color and a large mass of stone permanently secured him the title of one of the rarest diamonds in the world.
Diamond The Centenary («Centennial")
Diamond "Centennial" found July 17, 1986 in a mine Premier, South Africa. Weight rough stone was 599.1 carats. On the discovery was made aware during the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the most famous in the world almazodobyvnoy company De Beers. Jeweller Gabi Tolkowsky almost three years, handled a diamond. The result came out amazing, "Centennial" - diamond perfectly clean water and pristine sand. It weighs 273.85 carats. In May 1991, jewel insure more than $ 100 million The Centenary is stored in the Tower of London and is part of the British crown jewels.
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