Only in 1935/36 in Europe were closed the last cell with blacks in zoos - in Basle and Turin. Prior to that, white people are willing to go look at blacks in captivity (as well as on the Indians and Eskimos).
Already in the XVI century negros were brought to Europe as exotic, much like the animals of the new open land - chimpanzees, llamas and parrots. But until the XIX century blacks lived primarily in the courts of rich people - are illiterate commoners could not look at them, even in books.
That all changed with the modern era - when the majority of Europeans do not only learned to read, and emancipated to the point that claiming a similar pleasures of the bourgeoisie and aristocracy. This is the common desire of white coincided with the widespread opening of zoos on the continent, ie from about 1880.
Then the zoos have become filled with exotic animals from the colonies. Among them are and negros, which the then eugenics is also ranked as the simplest representatives of the fauna.
Sadly aware of the current European liberals and tolerastam, their grandfathers and fathers, even willingly did dibs on eugenics: thus, the last black man disappeared from a zoo in Europe only in 1935 in Basel and in 1936 in Turin. But the last "time exposure" to Blacks was in 1958 in Brussels Expo, where the Belgians had presented a "Congolese village with its residents."
(Zoo Basel, 1930, as the exhibition - the Somalis)
The justification for the Europeans can only serve what many whites really up to the early twentieth century did not understand - the black man is different from the apes. The case when Bismarck came to look at the Berlin Zoo on the Negro who has been placed in a cage with a gorilla: Bismarck is really asking schools superintendent, that he has shown - where in fact people in this cage.
(Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany, examines the blacks at the zoo in Hamburg, 1909)
By the early twentieth century negros kept in zoos have already mentioned in Basel and Berlin, Antwerp and London, and even in Russia Warsaw, these representatives of humanity have been exposed to the delight of the audience. It is known that in the London Zoo in 1902, the cage with the blacks looked about 800 thousand people. In total, at least 15 European cities have demonstrated if blacks in bondage.
Most often, zoo keeper was placed in the cells of the so-called "Ethnographic village" - when the cages were placed several black families. They went there in the national costumes and led a traditional lifestyle - something digging primitive tools, wove mats, cooking on a fire.
As a rule, negros long lived under the European winters. For example, it is known in the zoo in Hamburg from 1908 to 1912 died in captivity 27 blacks.
Negros while kept in zoos, even the U.S., despite the fact that whites lived there with him side by side for over 200 years. True, the pygmies in bondage placed by U.S. scientists believed poluobezyanami standing on the lower level of development than the "usual" black. In addition, these views are based on Darwinism. For example, American scientists and Branford Blum wrote then:
"Natural Selection, if it does not fix the obstacles have completed the process of extinction. It was believed that if it were not for the institution of slavery, which supported and protected blacks, they would have to compete with whites in the struggle for survival. Most fitness whites in this match was beyond doubt. The disappearance of blacks as a race would be only a matter of time. "
Notes about the content of preserved pygmy Ota Benga named. Ota for the first time, along with other pygmies has been exposed as a "typical savage" in the anthropological wing of the World Expo 1904 in St. Louis. Pygmies during their stay in America, scientists have investigated, comparing "savage race" with the intellectually handicapped Europoids on tests of mental development, in reaction to the pain and the like. Antropometristy psihometristy and came to the conclusion that intelligence test scores can be compared to the pygmies' mentally retarded people, who spend on the test a lot of time and allow a lot of stupid mistakes. " Many Darwinists classified level of the Pygmies "directly to the Paleolithic period," and learned the Getty has found in them "the cruelty of primitive man." Do not stir it in sports. According to Branford and Blum, "so shameful record as the one that was installed wretched savages, had never before been recorded in the history of the sport."
Pygmy Otoo asked to conduct as much time in the monkey. He even gave a bow and arrow and shoot allowed "to attract the public." Soon, Ota was trapped in a cage - and when he was allowed to get out of the monkey, "the crowd staring at him, and stood guard near." September 9, 1904 started an advertising company. The headline in the New York Times exclaimed, "Bushmen sits in a cage with monkeys Bronx Park." Director, Dr. Horned argued that simply offered "an interesting exhibit" for the edification of the public:
"[He] ... obviously did not see the difference between a small black man and the wild - animals, for the first time in an American zoo man exhibited in a cage. In the cage for a parrot and Benge hoisted an orangutan named Dohong. " In the descriptions of eyewitnesses said that Ota "a little above their heads ... orangutans are very similar, and they are equally rock when something happy."
In fairness, we should mention that in the zoos of the time contained not only the negros, and other primitive peoples - the Polynesians, and Canadian Inuit, Indians, Surinam (Dutch famous exhibition in Amsterdam in 1883), the Indians of Patagonia (in Dresden). And East Prussia and in 1920 in captivity in the ethnographic village contained Balts who had to represent "the ancient Prussians," and perform their rituals in front of the audience.
Historian Kurt Yonasson explains the disappearance of the human zoo is not only the dissemination of ideas of equality among nations, which are then distributed Persons Nations, as the onset of the Great Depression of 1929, when the common people was not the money to attend such events. And somewhere - like in Germany with Hitler's rise - the authorities have canceled the order willed such a "show".
French zoos with blacks:
Zoo in Hamburg with blacks and other color:
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