Gasometer in Oberhausen (Gasometer Oberhausen) - the largest gas-holder disc type in Europe, is a monument of industrial architecture, is located in Oberhausen (Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany) on the banks of the Rhine-Herne Canal. Gasometer was built in 1927-1929. Today the building - an important point of the European Route of Industrial Heritage, and is used as an exhibition hall.
1. During the 1920's in the Ruhr region, is widely being built coal mines, coking plants, metallurgical plants. As a byproduct of the smelting of iron blast furnace gas is obtained, which can then be used as fuel. Also valuable energy raw materials and coke oven gas is obtained in the process of coking coal.
Since gas production and consumption at a given time often do not match, then it became necessary to build reservoirs to store surplus gas and their subsequent use.
2. In February 1927 in the city began construction and as a result by 1929 in Oberhausen was built the biggest in Europe at that time (and now) gasometer: 67.6 m in diameter, 117.5 m in height and volume of 347,000 m3. If we assume that a gas stove consumes 30 cubic meters of gas a month, then this volume would suffice for 960 years.
3. To achieve such outstanding results has helped design a new gas meter. In ancient times all gasometers built on a "wet" technology - a pool of water in which the bell, open bottom, and where the gas supply. Water is pushed gas bell pops up when gas consumption is the reverse process
Oberhauzensky gasometer was created by advanced "dry" technology: a huge cylindrical tank housed the disc - the piston. Gas was fed from below and raise your pressure piston. The consumption of gas-piston disc sank. To eliminate the leakage at the edges of the piston, the walls of gas meter were thickly smeared with creosote, grease, tar and other muck.
4. Construction of gas meter has been so successful that it spent 1.74 million Reichsmark paid off within 18 months. Since then, the giant engineering contributed to the growth and prosperity of the German steel and chemical industries, and hence is indirectly responsible for the Nazi aggression.
During the Second World War Oberhauzensky gas meter had been repeatedly hit by bombs, but continued to operate until near the end of the war in 1945. A year after the end of the war during the repair work caused a fire which destroyed the gas tank almost to the base. Reconstruction of the gas meter was held in 1949.
5. All this mess ended only in 1988 - in connection with the transition to natural gas industry and closing factories in the surrounding areas, the need for a gasometer finally disappeared.
Most industrial facilities were destroyed after the termination of their operation. However, the citizens of Oberhausen, council member of North Rhine-Westphalia decided to convert the gas meter in the exhibition hall, which today remains a major target of the city of Oberhausen. Restoration and conversion cost about 16 million DM. Work carried out the German company Deutsche Babcock AG. The transformation was completed in 1994.
6. Drive gas piston was installed at a height of 4.50 meters. Beneath it is a round hall with an area of 3000 square meters. Two steel staircase leads to the upper surface of the piston, which rises in the middle of the supporting structures with a diameter of 20 meters. Part of this design are used as exhibition stands.
7. On the roof of the gas meter can be lifted with a glass elevator.
8. Magnitude of the construction can only feel alive when a site on the top floor looking at the gas meter base surrounded by darkness.
9. To date, the gasometer was held for 11 exhibitions, which are visited by more than 3 million people.
10. On April 8, 2011 in the gas meter will open a new thematic exhibition - "Magical place - natural and cultural monuments.
Presented over two floors photocomposition, art, minerals give visitors the opportunity to get ideas about the wonders of nature and culture. Center of the exhibition is a 40-foot monumental sculpture "Tree of rain forest, created by Wolfgang Foltz. According to the organizers, this exhibition of monumental sculptures, captivating sound and light design will turn gas meter in the "Cathedral of Nature."
11. On the roof of the gas meter equipped with three observation platforms, aimed in different directions: north (overlooking the Osterfeld, Shterkrade, Dinslaken and Bottrop), south-east (in the form of Alt-Oberhausen and Essen) and south-west (in the form of Alt-Oberhausen and Duisburg).
12. Rhein-Herne Canal (Rhein-Herne-Kanal) connects the Ruhr region with the rest of the federal state of North Rhine - Westphalia, Germany and other lands. Canal was built over eight years in the period from April 5, 1906 to July 14, 1914. Initially, the channel ended in the town of Herne, which is reflected in the name of the channel. In 1980 the canal was widened.
13. Via walk ships built specifically for the channel. Their capacity ranges from 1300 to 1350 tons, the maximum depth - 2,5 m, length about 80 meters, maximum width of 9,5 meters.
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