American psychologist Harry Harlow (Harry Harlow) earned his experiments sinister reputation, even among colleagues. The paradox is that he thereby obtained the data for science, demonstrating the need for warmer relations people to each other. It happened in the 50 years. Originally Harlow has been developing a test of intelligence for the monkeys. He showed that they are able to solve the problem much more complex than the authors of earlier studies. By studying rhesus monkeys, Harlow isolated pups from mothers and their peers. This circumstance has played a crucial role in the fact that he came upon a discovery that brought him fame.
He noticed that the monkeys when they were separated from the mother, makes it extremely tied to a towel, which carpet the floor cells. They clench their fists in their own, embraced them and fell into hysterics when the took away the towel. What happened? Attachment at the time understood solely in terms of food reinforcement. Baby loves his mother because she satisfies his hunger. Harlow fed babies from the hands of small bottles. When he cleaned the bottle, the monkey simply looked away. But when he tried to take away from them, a towel, there was something else entirely: the macaque began a heart-rending shriek, rushed to the floor and clings to the towel stranglehold. Harlow looked at the screaming monkeys and thought about how there is love. To him came a sudden thought. As his biographer writes Blum, the best way to understand the heart - to break it. Soon, Harlow began his famous experiments.
With scissors, metal and soldering, he built a wire mesh "surrogate mother". It was attached to the nipple, which implies the monkey milk.
In addition, he made a soft surrogate mother, turning her body terry cloth. In the second mother was not the nipple. Newborn pups were placed in the cage with two surrogate mothers. Adult monkeys, who deprived children, screaming and beating on the walls of cells, babies wailing, hitting a separate room. This went on hour after hour, the laboratory was filled with cries of despair and the stench: diarrhea, wrote Harlow, indicates a high degree of emotional stress.
But then began to occur some amazing things. Several days later, pups were transferred his affection to these mothers, who were now available on the cloth surrogate, for them, they clung on them crawling around, caressing them as "persons" with his little paws and spent many hours sitting on their back and stomach. Cloth mother could not feed them milk, and when the cubs are hungry, they climbed onto a wire mother, but then again returned to the cloth.
After some time, Harlow put small monkeys in a strange room with one of the surrogate mothers. If they are a nursing mother, cubs trembled, wept and shrank into a ball on the floor.
If the room is provided cloth surrogate mother, their behavior was different: the monkey felt safe with interest the room and items placed in it.
Harlow made a report, which he called "The Nature of Love" and which became a classic: "We were not surprised to find that comfort, which brings the contact is the basis of variables such as affection and love, but we did not expect that it is completely obscure such factors as nutrition, indeed, the difference was so large that it made to assume: the main function of feeding - providing frequent and close bodily contact with the baby's mother ... Love to the present and the surrogate mother look very similar. According to our observations, the attachment to the baby monkey's real mother is very strong, but she is not inferior to the love in a experiment shows calf a surrogate mother to the fabric. "
In 1930-1950 years, dominated the theory of education, according to which should not spoil the child tactile promotion, embracing him and taking his hands. Harlow showed that mother-child contact is vital. He presented data that clearly show: cloth surrogate mother is more important for kids than are breast-feeding. His success was a triumph and a revolution. In 1958, Harlow was elected president of the American Psychological Association. About him made a documentary film. His work has influenced the industry, producing goods for children: a special distribution was received backpacks, in which parents are able to carry children. Nursing homes and maternity homes have changed their policy: a little baby bottle with milk, it is necessary to take on your hands, swing, look at him and smile.
Something went wrong. Cloth surrogate mother provided a tactile contact is not worse than this, but during the next year, Harlow said that growing up monkeys were not completely normal. When he released them from the cells so that they can play with each other and form pairs, they are fiercely avoided communication. Females attacked the males. Some have shown that something similar to autism: they were swinging, biting themselves until blood and gnaw off their own fingers.
Harlow was disappointed. Just a year ago, he solemnly announced that highlighted the main component of education, and now it was clear that he made a mistake. He began to drink. In subsequent articles, Harlow courageously recognized that surrogate mothers reared pups suffer from emotional disorders, and pointed out that in addition to touching must be at least half an hour a day playing pups with each other. To prove this position he took observing dozens of monkeys.
First macaques reared in isolation and have not learned to play and mate. However, the females reached maturity, they began to ripen eggs. Harlow wanted to get their offspring, because he had a new idea. He was interested in the question, what these mothers will be a monkey. All attempts to plant them experienced males were not successful - the female clings to them in the muzzle. Then he invented a device that he called "frame for rape: it recorded the female could not resist the fact that it got into a male. It has brought success. Twenty females became pregnant and produced by offspring. Some of them have killed their young, while others were indifferent to them, but few have behaved appropriately.
In 1967, Harlow was awarded the National Medal of Science. He was on the cusp of academic careers, from just down the road. Four years later the cancer death of his wife. He felt exhausted and was forced to undergo a course of electroconvulsive therapy clinic. At some time Harlow was himself laboratory animals receiving the experimental procedure. After treatment he returned to the laboratory, and the staff said that he had never been the same. He spoke slowly and stopped to joke. He no longer wanted to study deprivation of maternal education. He was interested in what causes depression and what can it be cured. Harlow sought drug including himself.
He developed an isolated chamber in which the monkey sat hunched, bending his head and seeing nothing. The experiment lasted six weeks. The animal was fed through a hole at the bottom of the chamber, closed the special screen. This device Harlow called "pit of despair." He totally failed to create a model of mental illness. Animals that were released from the pit of despair, had shattered psyche, suffered severe psychosis. Whatever Harlow neither has made, to bring them back to a normal state without success.
Another of the experimental devices Harlow, consisting of the chair, rotating at a constant speed of one revolution per minute, and X-ray machine.
Harlow died in 1981 from Parkinson's disease. "The only thing I appreciate in monkeys - he said - it received from them the data that I publish. I did not like them. Animals in general I do not like. I detest cats. I hate dogs. How can love monkeys? "
Videos that showcase experiment with surrogate mothers:
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