If you think that cocaine is an evil, which appeared recently, think about it again. In fact, the history of cocaine use goes back thousands of years, cocaine moved not only by drug traffickers, but also the doctors - including the famous names that may surprise you.
Would you like to walk through the history of cocaine? With the author of "Anatomy of dependence," Dr. Howard Markel consider the history of using cocaine ...
The first drug
Coca leaves are sacred? That is considered the Inca somewhere in the sixth century, when they found a lot of coca bush in the Andes in South America. Men and women of the Inca people used cocaine in the rituals, it is claimed that they carried a coca leaves into small sacs that they were always at hand.
Cocaine craze covers Europe
Coca leaves are the product of consumption by the French chemist Angelo Mariani. In 1863, he mixed red wine and coke for the production of wine called Vin Mariani (Mariani Wine). It is a stimulant for the tired and congested brain and body, this wine prevents malaria, influenza and diseases associated with malnutrition, "says Mariani. Tonic has become wildly popular throughout Europe.
Subsequently, on the basis of cocaine Mariani presented to the public tea, candy, cigars, cigarettes and even margarine and cocaine.
Cocaine attracts the attention of doctors
Doctors have tried cocaine, and were amazed. Medical science journals touting him, saying that he can cure everything: flatulence, hysterical neurosis, back pain, muscle pain, neurasthenia and fatigue.
Large companies that manufacture drugs, including Parke, Davis, Merck, Boehringer and Squibb began to produce products containing cocaine, and sales soared.
"Cocaine was a magical cure for the 1880s - doctors believed that he can cure everything, and his patients always demanded," - says Dr. Markel.
Getting America's cocaine
Americans in his cocaine addiction to blame only one man - John Stith Pemberton. After the war, a veteran of the Civil War began to use morphine to take away the pain caused by injuries. He became addicted. Pemberton read that using cocaine dependence can be treated by morphine, and began to produce wine drink containing cocaine. When in Georgia, have banned alcohol, he mixed cocaine with kola nut extract and carbonated water, and - voila - Coca-Cola was born.
Perbenton announced that his "health drink" can treat impotence, headache, and dependence on morphine. Coca-Cola is still made from coca leaves, but coke is removed by chemical means.
Freud - a fan of cocaine
Sigmund Freud is not just the father of psychoanalysis. He was also one of the leading advocates of the use of cocaine for medical purposes. On whom he loved to experiment? On itself.
Freud also recommended the cocaine to his friend Ernest Fleisch-Marx, a doctor from Vienna, who fought with their dependence on morphine. But Freud's advice led to the opposite effect. Fleysh-Marx was dependent on both drugs, and died 7 years later at age 45.
Brave young surgeon Holsted
Freud was not only well-known doctor that supports the use of cocaine. Dr. William C. Holsted, a famous surgeon, loved to take risks - he once removed his mother's gall bladder on the table in the kitchen. He began experimenting with cocaine to satisfy his own scientific curiosity.
Freud publishes the work of "Super Coca"
The first major contribution of Freud was related to medicine is not psychoanalysis, but with cocaine. Treatise "On top of Coca", published in 1885, advanced the erroneous assertion that cocaine is so effective in the treatment of morphine dependence and alcohol, "intoxicated madmen can fully recover."
Cocaine as an anesthetic
Freud's colleague, Dr. Karl Koller, an intern at the Department of Ophthalmology at the Vienna hospital, was the first who described the anesthetic properties of cocaine. Shortly thereafter, doctors around the world began to use cocaine as a new miracle pain reliever.
Brave doctor addicted to cocaine
Like Freud, Halstead studied the effects of cocaine on his own body, grinding away the drug in his hand and from time to time his breathing to combat fatigue. He and his friends used cocaine before going to the theater, dancing, or before a game of bowling. Soon, they become real addicts drug intravenously.
Sherlock Holmes and coke
When the cocaine entered the popular culture? Back in 1887 when a young British physician named Arthur Conan Doyle published the first story of Sherlock Holmes, "A Study in Scarlet." The book introduces the detective himself cocaine to unwind after a difficult investigation.
Freud is struggling with an addiction to cocaine
Students of a biography of Freud, people believe that he tied with his addiction to cocaine in the year his father died - in 1886. Here is what he wrote in a letter at the time: "The next time I will write more and more, by the way, I completely abandoned the use of cocaine."
Congress votes for control of cocaine
Agitated prevalence of drug country attempted to stop the phenomenon of an action of drugs Harrison. Name from its author, New York Representative Francis B. Harrison (the image), the act regulate and tax producers, importers and distributors of opiates, including opium, morphine, heroin and codeine, along with cocaine.
Halstead hidden addict
What happened to William Halstead? It was cocaine and morphine addict to the end. One can only imagine what physical and mental damage was done a brilliant surgeon for 38 years concealed drugs. Halstead died in 1922.
Cocaine goes underground
Harrison Act did not achieve what the expected by its author. In the early twentieth century, cocaine enjoyed ever increasing popularity. In 1934 Cole Porter mentioned the cocaine in his hit «I Get a Kick Out of You». The text of the song were the following lines: "Some baldeyut of cocaine. I'm sure I did it once nyuhni, I would have sat down. While I Balde from you. "
Cocaine sponsored drug war
Cocaine use in the United States began to fall only in 1940 but returned in all its glory in the 1970s. But beyond the fun time on the Studio 54 disco, there was messy and often deadly world of drug trafficking. Pablo Escobar (here shown in the announcement of the 1989 search for Colombian television) was the biggest drug lord until his death in 1993.
Cocaine is now
Dr. Markel said that despite the statistics there is hope:
"Recent discoveries about the inner workings of the brain and the disastrous effects of cocaine reveal to us an unprecedented opportunity to address this long-standing health problems."
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