Beijing's imperial palaces and the Summer Palace Yuanminyuan long been a suburban residences of Chinese rulers. Often the emperors of China were carried out in them longer than in the Palace - the Forbidden City. Currently, the park Iheyun stuck the name Summer Palace and park in the tourist brochures Yuanminyuan called the Old Summer Palace. In ancient times, both the park were a single entity, the palace and park complexes started at about 8 km northwest of Beijing, and stretched up to the western mountains, for many tens of kilometers.
1. The first summer residence on the site of the Summer Palace was built by the Jin Dynasty in 1153 - it was the palace of Golden Hill. Subsequently, almost every Chinese emperor something finishing work or rebuilt in its place. Most large-scale construction unfolded when the Qing Emperor Qianlong in 1750.
2. It was during his Summer Palace became a finished look. At the same time essential for Qianlong was still building, so called Old Summer Palace Yuanminyuan (described below), but he has built Iheyun rather by inertia, as always loved to do the construction. This "Chinese PetrI" reputed builder of the mostly in the Celestial Empire, almost all the palaces and temples that have survived to our days were built exactly Qianlong.
3. The famous Long Gallery of the Summer Palace
5. But despite the stormy creative activity Qianlong, construction of the Summer Palace in Beijing, China's persistently attributed to Empress Dowager Cixi of the last. This happens for one very unpleasant circumstance, the fact that all the summer palaces of Qianlong were destroyed almost to the base of the colonial Anglo-French troops in 1860. It happened during the second Opium War, when China had dared to oppose the European drug trade in their territory. In retaliation, the imperial ban the opium trade, British and French troops massacred the Chinese and, on reaching Beijing, burned and looted all of its suburban parks.
Big Scene of the Summer Palace - the largest theater, built in the Qing Dynasty.
6. Stage of the theater had hidden hatches and doors, through which might suddenly appear fairies hanging on the ropes, and other theatrical characters.
7. Living in the inner chambers of the palace.
9. In this regard, it appears that the Empress Dowager Cixi, ordered in the late 19th century to restore the country palaces, is their chief creator. Not only is it like to be criticized for these remedial works are various documents showing that the alleged Cixi spent on palaces, the money allocated for the establishment of the Navy of China.
I think that it is an interesting historical problem. Sumasbrodku Cixi, since the late 19th century, accused of all mortal sins. Like, old and lustful fool all of the money squandered and brought China to collapse. Of course, these allegations have a grain of truth, but reading the architectural masterpieces of the Empress's impossible not to wonder thought, but is it true? This question arose in me when I visited the tomb of Cixi and its parks.
11. As I wrote above, the Summer Palace Summer Palace was completely rebuilt in the time of Qianlong in the mid-18th century, huge man-made lake Kuminhu, the most important part of the park has been dug in the Jin Dynasty in the 12th century and the Mongols of the Yuan Dynasty. At the same time probably spiked the hill on which stands the main buildings of the Summer Palace.
13. European looters, making a fire in the palace, could not destroy all of the capital structure of the complex - dams, bridges, the massive foundations of buildings. They burned the only wooden pavilions, after looting their contents. It is these pavilions with tiled roofs and restored Cixi in 1885.
15. The roof of the Hall of scattered clouds.
17. The most impressive building of the palace - a powerful wooden tower Fosyange - Tower Voskurivany in honor of Buddha. It was reduced twice in 1889 and again in 1903, when the European barbarians burned her repeatedly during the famous Boxer Rebellion. Only this building and a couple of pavilions, deserve attention for its monumentality, and all other buildings Summer Palace - is one-story pavilions and small attics.
19. The complex of pavilions on the hill top, black "chamber's" in the center is completely made of bronze. This enabled him to survive a fire in 1860.
20. At the top of the hill is the palace of the Sea of Wisdom Temple - Chzhihueyhay. He is also survived the fire, as is made out of stone.
24. I do not think that in order to build a wooden pavilions, needed huge funds that are comparable with the budget of the Navy. Several hundred good craftsmen within 5-10 years could easily make all this beauty. Therefore, lunges toward the "old Dowager Cixi," I would suggest a more critical attitude ... the more we all know that is capable of a European propaganda. "Fool on the throne" - a very good reason for interfering in the internal affairs of states.
The famous marble boat the Empress Dowager Cixi. It is also contrived by the emperor Qianlong still in the middle of the 18th century.
26. Yuanminyuan Park or the Old Summer Palace are less fortunate than Summer Palace park, it could not recover after the barbarism of the European marauders. At this point, it is a picturesque ruin, not strange, often looking like ancient.
28. Ironically, in the construction of the palace attended by European architects. By order of the indefatigable builder of Qianlong in the years 1746-59 have been erected several buildings in European style, they were built under the guidance of the Jesuit Giuseppe Castiglione and Michel Benoit. The ruins of palaces in the "Western" style survived in part because the built of stone, in contrast to all other wooden buildings in China Yuanminyuan.
30. "The Chinese Versailles" - was the pearl of the palace garden architecture, but what he looked like, you can see only in old engravings and photos.
British troops in the palace Yuanminyuan in 1860.
31. Dragging away the ruins of the palace for 150 years, in the early 20th century, it still remained on some walls, now it's just a pile of stones.
36. The current state of the palace - the overgrown ruins of the trees.
42. As Summer Palace Old Summer Palace is a labyrinth of canals, artificial lakes and islands on them.
48. The platform on which stood a wooden palace. Most Yuanminyuan consisted of wooden pavilions in the classical Chinese style, so they all burned in a fire in 1860.
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