[Mcm2Ada] From the history of headgear (17 photos)
With the advent of the first civilizations hats have become an indispensable element of the wardrobe into an attribute of power. Pre-dynastic Egypt, yet the rulers were crowned with crowns of their heads, and the founder of the First Dynasty pharaoh Menes united the two crowns in one - it was called and symbolized pshent his power over the Lower and Upper Egypt.
It is believed that the first hat - petasos - appeared in ancient Greece. Made it is usually made of straw, and were mainly farmers and travelers. No wonder the usually depicted petasose Hermes messenger of the gods.
Yet the main function of headgear remained protection - naturally, not only from rain, heat and other vagaries of nature, but also from intentional self-harm. The earliest helmets have survived were found in the Sumerian tombs dating from the third millennium BC. However, the ammunition of the precious metal could afford only to know, and ordinary soldiers had to deal with leather helmets, at best, trimmed with metal plates. Only with the spread of iron metal helmets have become an integral part of the outfit of a warrior.
Phrygian cap of liberty was an attribute in the era of the Roman Empire. About him remembered again during the French Revolution, one of the characters which he has become. In 1792, Louis XVI had pinned on his head instead of the crown cap red to show their commitment to the people raging revolutionary ideas. However, this move did not save the hapless monarch from the guillotine.
Turban - one of the simplest and oldest hat - known people of the Middle East for at least five thousand years. It is a long piece of cloth 3.8 m, coiled around her head. And, despite its apparent simplicity, the best protection from the scorching rays of the sun has not yet been invented.
In medieval Europe, the most popular headwear was a hood. Subsequently, this piece of clothing has been developed: it added a short "raincoat" that reached to his shoulders. Thus was born the chaperone. At the beginning of the XIV century it has added new decorative elements, becoming a magnificent headdress resembling a turban. Color chaperone often pointed to the political views of its owner.
Many ancient peoples endowed hats sacred meaning. Thus the Talmud says, "to cover their heads, to always feel the fear of the Almighty." Because of this, orthodox Jewish men always wear yarmulkes, small caps, and less conservative Jews wear them during the prayers and visits to the synagogue. Christians have different traditions: "My God, just like my head is exposed, before you open my sins"
Wearing yarmulkes in the Catholic Church is considered a privilege of the clergy, and by its color is easy to determine the rank of priest - Red Cardinal rely, violet - the bishops and the Pope only has the right to wear a white skullcap.
The first European universities appeared in the monasteries, and those who have studied and borrowed a dress from the clergy. The famous rectangular trencher, which is now associated with higher education emerged in the Middle Ages and evolved from the traditional headdress of Catholic priests - biretty.
Wide-brimmed hat, celebrated in the novels of his cloak and sword, for all its beauty was not too comfortable at home and combat headgear. At the beginning of the XVII century, first in Spain and then in France and throughout Europe, it gives way to a hat with a bent fields - three-cornered hat. A century later, latter, in turn, displace more compact and practical dvuugolka.
Perhaps the most bizarre headgear gave the world the French ladies "gallant century". Luxurious and sophisticated designs that adorned their hair, the language does not turn to name caps - many of them reaching a height of 50-70 centimeters and required many hours of labor kuaferov. In the ladies' hairstyles sometimes turning even the mouse. Rodents attracted to the smell of powder.
In 1796 on the orders of Emperor Paul I in several regiments of Russian Army officers formless hat is a cap. By the end of the Napoleonic wars, a new element of the wardrobe has taken root in the Prussian army, and in the XX century cap came into use police, train drivers and pilots.
At the end of XVIII century in Western Europe appeared cylinder - high hat with narrow margins. After fifty years, he became the most fashionable hat, without which no one would put out a dandy no nose out of the house, and by the end of the XIX century the cylinder, giving the role of mass male bowler hat, has become a symbol of the bourgeoisie, and literally found a second life in numerous cartoons and promotional posters.
Siege of Sevastopol in 1854, the Anglo-French army apparently did not expect it to be done under the walls of the city for almost a year, and is not stocked with warm clothing. Even the mild winter of the Crimean was too cold for Western troops. In order to somehow protect themselves from the cold, they used a knitted cap with slits for eyes and mouth, which are called balaclava - after the city became a base for the duration of the war the British Army. Stylish model has taken root)
In 1865, John Stetson Hatter American created the first cowboy hat - it was called the "Master plains" and become one of the symbols of the era of the Wild West. For nearly half a century of design has not changed hats.
Proliferation of firearms and artillery negated the protective functions of the helmet, and to the XVIII century in European armies, they were kept in uniform except that the heavy cavalry. Triumphant return of metal helmets (in Latin - cassis, went from the word "helmet") was held during the First World War. The lion's share of the time the soldiers had to spend in the trenches, so the most important thing was to protect the head from bullets and random debris.
Up until the mid XX century baseball players went to play in a variety of hats. That all changed overnight when in 1954, New Era launched a series of caps 59Fifty. Two decades later, they became an integral part of baseball equipment. Caps come into vogue: they started wearing fans, and then quite distant from the world of sports people.
In the story The Tissue-Culture King Julian Huxley suggested that the cap protects the foil from the telepathic influence. Conspiracy theorists have adopted the idea and think that these hats will protect their brains from the influence of intelligence and aliens.
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