Monday, July 11, 2011

[kl-bogel] The tomb of China's First Emperor

The grave complex of Emperor Qin Shi Huang, a major tourist attraction in China. It is situated in the ancient city of Xian, the former capital of China for millennia. Many people come to this city only to see the famous Terracotta Army, which today is the most important part of the tomb of the First Emperor, as he inspected the burial complex of tourists is very rare. The clay soldiers found in 1974, putting off for all the attention. At the same time Terracotta Army incidental element of burial, located 1.5 km from the tomb, outside the line of the ancient defensive walls that surrounded the whole necropolis.

(48 photos)

1. To get to the Terracotta Army of Xi'an easy, there always a bus number 306 or 5 on the area of ​​the city's main railway station.

2. The whole area around the tomb of the First Emperor Chinese ispohablena so as soon as they can. Describe kilometer rows of shops and stalls, no power, I even got lost in the maze of meaningless structures. All this evil, poke so much that one can hardly find the entrance to the complex itself.
The main excavation site.

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4. Terracotta Army is dated 02/03 century BC and logically attributed to burial complex of Emperor Qin Shi Huang, although there is some distance from it.
At the moment, excavated more than 8,000 clay warriors and their number is constantly increasing. Warriors have increased 180-190 cm, weight of a soldier about 136 kg.

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6. Nearly all cases are individual Terracotta Army.

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8. All armies have been equipped with these weapons - crossbows, spears and swords, most of whom, perhaps, in ancient times borrowed insurgent peasants, but now found tens of thousands of arrowheads and other weapons.
Photos from the Museum of Terracotta Army.

9. Attention to detail is simply amazing ..

10. It is assumed that the earth may be still thousands and thousands of soldiers. Were also found in the shape of officials, musicians and acrobats.

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12. Not all the soldiers arrived in perfect condition, most of the figures was crushed by a heavy roof collapsed in antiquity.

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14. All the figures were very brightly colored, but the colors have died from contact with oxygen, when the soldiers began to draw to the surface.
Photos from the Museum of Terracotta Army. I just do not understand why they have blue noses? :)

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16. There are many versions, answering the question, why did all these figures. It is known that during the earlier Chinese dynasties, the Shang, Zhou, it was decided to bury the living, but here they like the thought of the goodness of his heart, to replace the clay counterparts.
"A warrior who wishes us well."

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18. The figure of the general, the highest of all, there is something about 2 meters.

19. But there is one caveat. Previously, the number of those buried with the rulers of the people was relatively small - 100-200. The number of soldiers Qin Shi Huang is now greater than 8000 and no one knows how many more will be found. Bury alive a whole army corps must have been beyond the power of even the great First Emperor. So we can talk not only about the "great kindness" of the ruler, but about his increased desire.
In this sense, the wives are out of luck Qin Shi Huang, according to the testimony of Sima Qian was buried all the same - in kind. Apparently, the Chinese have had a proper understanding of this issue - the clay does not replace a real woman. :) As a result, all childless concubines were buried.

Bronze chariot models Qin Shihuanadi. They are made almost life-size, many parts of the harness and chariots themselves are made of gold and silver.

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23. Also, Sima Qian, shows that the emperor was buried along with many artists worked on the mausoleum. Of course, all buried was also problematic, because in the construction of the tomb were employed to 700,000. Recently, we found a mass grave of people to the west of Qin Shi Huang of the pyramid, but there are only about 100 people, it may be dead at the construction workers. They died like flies, it was a well-known All-China servitude.

24. "A warrior engaged in Tai Chi"

25. Perhaps it is appropriate to quote here the text of Sima Qian, as the main source of our knowledge of the tomb of Qin Shih Huang Ti.

"In the ninth moon [dust] Shi Huang was buried in Mount Lishan. Shi Huang, first came to power, then began punching Mount Lishan and hold it [the tomb], combining the Celestial, [he] sent there from all over China over seven hundred thousand criminals. They penetrated to the third water flooded [Wall] and bronze sarcophagus was lowered down. The crypt was filled with transported and dropped back [up] palaces, [figure] officials of all ranks, rare and unusual jewelry items. Masters told to make bows, crossbows, so that [set out there], they shot at those who try to dig through the course and get [the tomb]. Of mercury have large and small rivers and seas, and the mercury was poured into them spontaneously. Depicted on the ceiling painting of the sky, on the floor - the outlines of the land. Fixtures filled with fat-jen yuev in the hope that fire long extinguished
Er shi said, "All inmates of childless rear chambers of the palace late emperor should not drive," and ordered all of them buried with the dead. There were many dead. When the coffin was lowered down the emperor already, someone said that the masters who made all the devices and hid [values], they know everything and can spill the beans about the hidden treasures. Therefore, when the funeral is over and it was nestled laid the middle door passage, and then lowered the front door, completely walled up all the craftsmen and those who filled the grave of values, so that no one there was never released. [Top] planted grass and trees, [the grave] has become a regular mountain "

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27. The text of the most interesting and really, really weird.
I'm not an expert on Chinese translations, but I believe that the meaning of a passage, passed accurately. Attracts attention is that Sima Qian in the text does not mention the construction of a giant pyramid. The crypt is punched in an alleged mountain. However, most modern scholars recognize the artificiality of the mound Qin Shi Huang. Here is a contradiction ..
The road from the Terracotta Army, to actually burial complex is in very rough terrain, all pitted pits under some jelly farming. It occurred to me that in this furious digging area by local peasants, not a sin to find the burial itself and the Emperor ..

28. Here is the pyramid of Chin Shih Huang Ti now.

29. The height of the pyramid at the moment where about 50 meters. It is believed that originally the building was two times more data are different heights from 83 feet to 120. The length of the base of the pyramid 350 meters (For reference, the length of the base of the pyramid of Cheops in Egypt - 230 meters)

30. One should not think that Qin Shi Huang's pyramid - it is such a pile of earth. At the bottom of one of the reconstructions of the tomb. The pyramid was made of the same material as the Great Wall and nearly all the houses in China and Central Asia, that is of rammed earth. This material may be as solid as concrete. For example, some excavation sites of the Great Wall, built at the turn of our era, when the Han dynasty, still standing, and later the walls of stone and baked bricks, Ming has already collapsed.

31. The only thing that I do not like in this reconstruction is that there are three major steps. In the photo of French researcher Victor Segal, made in 1909, is visible first and second major step, then the pyramid, and how the landscape was "bald" and division levels to read well.

Sima Qian 32.Esli believe it is possible, at the base of the pyramids had some natural mountain, where he arranged the burial of the emperor. And perhaps, as many researchers, the first emperor was buried in his pyramid, his tomb is located somewhere nearby. The base of the pyramid, invisible trees.

33.Verhnyaya platform pyramids Qin Shi Huang. Now available here was closed to tourists do not go "head" to the First Emperor of China. It is evident that the Chinese are trying to mask the upper platform svezheposazhennymi trees. What is not clear, perhaps, to finally destroy the brain to various ufologists and other professionals on the aliens and pratsivilizatsiyam

34.Lestnitsu apart and planted trees opening to quietly from a distance was the presence here of the passage.

35.Primerno 200 meters south of the pyramid, I found in the bush very decent vertical shaft dug by Chinese comrades. Apparently, they do not sit idly by and search for the entrance to the burial place, albeit slowly, but being ..

36.Na this photo clearly shows at what distance from the pyramids of the Chinese struck in the land of this shaft.

37.Shahta located within the perimeter walls surrounding the entire burial complex. There were several perimeters. Fortifications of the tomb of Qin Shi Huangdi little inferior to the medieval city walls of Xian, the tomb walls of total length 12 km, the average height of 10 meters.
Reconstruction of the burial of Qin Shi Huang.

38.Seychas entire burial complex courtyard overgrown with trees and bushes, and when here there were many ritual structures, they are left only the foundations. But the walls of the Inner City funeral visible now, especially well-preserved walls in the south.
The ruins of the southern gate of the complex. There have been 10 pieces.

39.Na photo taken from the height of the pyramid, one can clearly see the south-east corner of the fortifications.

40.Koe, where the walls are preserved to a height of two to three meters.

41.Etim bricks at least 2210 years ...

42.Interesno why the pyramid so greatly diminished in size. Of course, time and natural disasters took their toll, but most likely the tomb of the First Emperor of China was commonplace not completed.
On this also indicates Sima Qian:
"See, succeeded [declared] successor, Hu Hai, who became the second emperor, ruler - Er Shi Huang-ti" ... ..
"After the death of Shih Huang Hu Hai showed crass stupidity: not finishing the work of Mount Lishan, he resumed construction of the palace Epan to fulfill previously scheduled [his father] plans."
Ie son for his father's palace was the most important shrine. By the way, the palace Epan - is one of the huge buildings of ancient China, unfortunately, he has not reached us.

43.Imenno for this simple reason, pyramid, Chin Shih Huang Ti is slightly different from the example, the later Han Dynasty pyramids. And it's not the size, shape and structure, which is just not. Man-made mountain is only a square at the base and then I have a suspicion that the Chinese have issued a special, cutting off part of the loess rocks.
Here is visible the first step the base of the pyramid.

44.Zdes the first high level carefully concealed, planted with trees.

45.Kverhu rounding mound, the faces are almost entirely absent. Because of this, I even get lost there - not down to the south and the west side and could not figure out where I am. We must not forget that one side of Qin Shi Huang's pyramid 350 meters. And only from the air you can see that there, and how on earth is visible only a dense forest and a gradual climb to the center of the soil structure.
General view of the southern courtyard of the funeral complex - a complete void, although it is possible to distinguish a small line of ancient walls ...

46.Vot this loess terrace, pictured below, I initially mistook for a dam, defended the town burial of Qin Shi Huang of the overrun, but the dam is likely located in the south. The entire province of Shaanxi consists of loess in the terraces, so that confusion is not surprising.

47.Kak and many other places in Shaanxi, Chinese farmers digging for centuries in the terraces to their homes and barns. Here is one of them ..

48.Okruzhayuschie mountains look much more "pyramidal" greatest Chinese pyramids. How many do not try, as creatures of nature are always majestic acts of any person ....

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