Tuesday, July 5, 2011

[kl-bogel] Iran's national treasure

Golden pitcher, covered with enamel, with a basin for washing hands

Over the past 25 centuries, it was worth the peace come time, Iran's rulers were taken to collect the gems and jewelry. Royal courts and the treasury of the Sassanid kings (Khosrow Parviz in particular) have long turned into a legend and highlights in the history books.

However, only with the advent of the Persian Safavid dynasty kings engaged in the systematic collecting jewelry. Safavi yard with special attention to the conservation and filled the royal treasury, which already contained one of the largest and most beautiful collections in the world. Today we can learn about it only from the travel notes of foreign travel, including Anthony Jenkins, Johann Baptist Tavernier, Chardin, and brothers George and Shirley Minvariga.

After the fall of the Safavid dynasty of Iran plunged into chaos as looters and treasure have found a good place for selling stolen in the Indian market. That is why a large part of the Safavid dynasty treasures passed into the hands of the court Teymuridov in India.



After that, Nader Shah sent to the Indian court several official letters to reclaim the stolen treasures. But the Indian king Nader Shah's warning ignored - and then he invaded India. After the capture of Delhi in India, he made a ruler Mohammad Shah. Mohammad Shah agreed to give Nader Shah treasure, guns and other weapons in exchange for a promise of peace.

Part of the treasure, returned from India, was damaged or lost on the way to Iran. As was customary in those days, returning to Iran, Nader Shah presented the treasures of the neighboring kingdoms: Emperor Sultan Mahmud the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empress Elizabeth, and the ruler of Bukhara Abolfeyzu Khan. He also gave a few gems and jewelry holy mausoleum of Imam Reza - the eighth Shiite Imam (peace be upon him), and something that also gave the soldiers of his army.

Soon after the assassination of Nader Shah in 1747. Ahmad Khan Ebdali, commander of the army of Nader Shah sacked the royal treasury. One of her most precious jewels - diamonds, "Koohe Noor" - was brought from Iran and never returned.

King of the Qajar dynasty, Agha Mohammed Khan began to partially return the treasures of Nader Shah. Agha Mohammad Khan was the first ruler after Nader Shah, who made every effort to protect the Iranian treasury. His successor on the throne of Fath Ali Shah continued the policy of protection and preservation of the royal treasures. He did it very well - mostly because he loved the gems and jewelry. It was Fath Ali Shah ordered the establishment of the famous Throne Nader, peacock throne and crowns Kiani.

Naser-od-Din Shah, the Qajar ruler of another, also tried to collect the treasure and save the royal treasury. He bought 48 large yellow diamonds, which are now stored in the National treasury of Iran. He is credited and the order for production of the famous Globe of precious stones, which demonstrates his passion for collecting and preserving jewelry.

Follow the Qajar rulers - namely, Muzaffar-o-Din Shah and Mohammad Ali Shah ordered their treasurers keep careful records on all items in the treasury, to prevent theft of the precious collection.

During the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi, most of the royal treasury was transferred to the National Bank of Iran, in order to strengthen the financial capacity of the bank, as well as serve as a guarantee of the Iranian currency. In January 1960, during the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, the meeting was moved to the newly established Central Bank of Iran, Ferdowsi Street in Tehran on where it is to this day.

After the Islamic Revolution in 1979, the royal collection of the Pahlavi dynasty, and some other jewels were added to the treasury of the Central Bank. Since then, it was renamed the National Iranian treasury jewelry, more commonly referred to as a "Museum of jewelry." And now there is the most valuable collection in the world of jewelry - today the largest and most amazing collection of jewelry in the world.

Below are some items of the meeting:

One of the world's most famous diamond is the Darya-ye Noor ("More Light"). It is the largest pink diamond in the world - and it certainly ranks first among the huge variety of diamonds in the National treasury of Iran. This stone is passed by Shah Iran from generation to generation - from Nader Shah to Nasruddin Shah. Which belonged to the stone with a special love. Weight "Darya-ye Noor" is about 182 carats, it is a pale pink color, which is very rare among diamonds. Scientists suspect that before it was only part of a larger stone, weighing 242 carats, and later split into "Darya-ye Noor" and "Noor-ol-Ein" (60 carats).



Nader Shah's shield made of rhinoceros skin. It was used during the war with India in 1739 - 1740 gg. Later, in honor of this event, the shield have been added large rubies, diamonds, corundum and emerald.



Fath Ali Shah, who reigned from 1798 - 1834 gg., Commanded his craftsmen to produce this throne. Became known as "Sunny the throne," because his back was shown the sun. After the shah was married to Tawus ("Peacock") Tadzhodole, the throne was renamed the "Peacock." Some believe that it is - the famous "Peacock Throne", which was brought from India, but it is not.
After the death of Fath Ali Shah, who succeeded him Nasruddin Shah ordered to change the throne, and there was added a few panels with lines of poetry (blue enamel on gold background). The throne was kept in the palace until 1981 Golestan Because he was richly decorated with precious stones, it was later decided to send him to the national treasury under the Central Bank of Iran.



Cover the dish, decorated with precious stones



Crown Fath Ali Shah, known as the "Crown Kiani," decorated with diamonds, emeralds, rubies and pearls. Basic red stone - corundum Aurangzib. Crown produced during the reign of Fath Ali Shah, in 1797, and it was used a few of checks after that. It was the first crown, made after the Sassanid dynasty.



Work on the Globe of jewelry began in 1869, by order of Nasreddin Shah. Iranian jewelers group led by Ibrahim Massihi, made this globe of individual stones, which were kept in the treasury. Net weight of gold used in the manufacture Globe is 34 kg, and precious stones all together weigh 3656 g. As this is often mentioned, jewelers, much better versed in working with the jewelry, rather than in geography, so sometimes some of the country on the globe to define sufficient difficult. Seas and oceans are made of emeralds, continents - from rubies. Southeast Asia, Iran, Britain and France are represented with diamonds. The diameter of the globe is about 66 cm Reliance made of wood, inlaid with precious stones.



Hookah from ostrich egg shells and gold



Golden pitcher, covered with enamel, with images of birds in the upper part shows women. This item is one of the best examples of Iranian painting on enamel.



Crown, which is used by Reza Khan and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. It is made of gold and silver and decorated with diamonds, emeralds, sapphires and pearls. Woven of the crown is made of red velvet. On the four sides of the crown are scenes of battles and sun with bright rays and four planets, all made from diamonds. In general, the crown of crowns in the style of the Sassanid rulers (226 -651 years)..
This crown, which includes 3380 diamonds (1144 carats) and 368 pearls (all together weigh 2080 g) was used during the coronation of Reza Pahlavi, April 25, 1926, and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi October 26, 1967



Presented here, "Nader throne", although it is named in his honor, has nothing to do with the Iranian ruler of the XVIII century. The inscriptions on the panels surrounding the seat of the throne shows that it was created during the reign of Fath Ali Shah (1798 - 1834). Fath Ali Shah ordered that throne in order to demonstrate the luxury of his court and subjects of foreign ambassadors who attended the king in the various summer residences in the vicinity of Tehran. The throne is made up of 12 individual parts and includes the whole 26 733 precious stones. It was also used during the coronation ceremony of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.



Chest for treasure, enamelled with artful drawings of the Persian Qajar dynasty and floral patterns



Decanter XIX century. Green enamel with pearls, rubies and diamonds



In this box are some emeralds, weighing from 10 to 320 carats, as well as objects, decorated with emeralds



Gold belt with a large emerald (weighing 175.5 carats) on the buckle, is surrounded by 60 faceted diamonds and polished pink diamonds 145.
The length of the belt is 119 cm, width - 4 cm belt was used during the coronation of Reza Khan Pahlavi in ​​1926



Golden pitcher with rose water, enamelled and encrusted with rubies, diamonds and emeralds.



The crown that was used headlamp Pahlavi. It was made from the finest gems of the Treasury, the company «Van Cleef et Arpels» in 1967, the Crown is made of platinum and gold and encrusted with 1469 diamonds, emeralds, 36, 105 pearls, 34 rubies and two corundum. Its total weight is 1 480



Golden candle holder, decorated with diamonds, emeralds, rubies and "brushes" made of pearls and emeralds.
Two of these candlesticks were exposed on both sides of the Peacock Throne, during ceremonies at the Palace Golestan.



The tiara of gold, large and small rubies and diamonds. Board of Fath Ali Shah (1798 - 1934 gg.)



Golden censer, decorated with enamel, diamonds, emeralds, corundum and



Platinum Tiara with diamonds and rubies, made in 1967



The brooch, made in the XIX century. In the form of a double knot made of a set of identical jewels.



Water bottle, made in the XIX century., And adorned with turquoise and rubies that cover it in a spiral



Diamond brooch with a bird's eye in the form of ruby



Egret with diamonds and sapphires, made at the beginning of the XIX century.



Tiara in platinum and diamonds, 1938



Egret turquoise, depicting the sun, made during the reign of Shah Nasruddin



Gold egret with diamonds, rubies, pearls, emeralds, corundum, and (XIX century).



Brooch with diamonds, emeralds, rubies, sapphires and turquoise (XIX century).



Necklace made of platinum, with large yellow and small white diamonds (1967)



Three brooches with large pearls - black pearl - in the form of a duck, and two white - in the form of two swans



Gold egret with diamonds and sapphires. Made in Europe, XIX century.



A necklace of emeralds, diamonds and pearls, made in 1967



Gold egret in the shape of a bow, inlaid with diamonds, corundum and emerald. Made during the reign of Fath Ali Shah (1798 - 1834)



Necklace with turquoise and diamonds, made of platinum (1960).



"Egret Nader" decorated with diamonds and emeralds. Central cabochon emerald is (he gave shape and polished, but not ogranyali). Egret includes 7 "panache" with diamonds, and hanging with her three emeralds in the form of droplets.



Necklace Garamol Saltan, of gold and silver with diamonds and emeralds.



Brooch in the form of jesters, adorned with diamonds and rubies (XIX century).



A necklace of gold and silver with diamonds, rubies, and corundum



Platinum necklace with diamonds and emeralds, made in 1967



Artfully made from silver egret, encrusted with diamonds and emeralds



Egret in gold and silver, inlaid with diamonds (XIX century).



Egret, made at the beginning of the XIX century. One of the paintings Fath Ali Shah represented with this egret, which is attached to the crown Kiani



Turquoise stand under a coffee cup in the form of a scroll (made in the reign Nasruddin Shah Qajar, 1831 - 1896.



Gold egret with diamonds and emeralds (the beginning of XIX century).



Egret in gold and silver, with rubies and diamonds (the beginning of XIX century).



Gold brooch in the form of a bouquet, inlaid with diamonds, rubies and opals.
It was made in the XIX century.

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