Learn-to-user alex-renew wrote: Kursk NPP - nuclear power plants in Russia, based in Kurchatov, Kursk region, 40 km west of the city of Kursk on the river bank Diet. The station consists of four units with a total capacity of 4 GW.
Two turns of the Kursk nuclear power plant (for two units each) were put into operation in 1976-1985. Kursk nuclear power plant became the second station with reactors of the RBMK-1000 after the Leningrad nuclear power plant, started up in 1973 ... Tour of the Kursk nuclear power plant - on.
1. Dawn over The cooling pond, with an area ~ 21.5 square kilometers
2. The first thing we were led to the reactor hall.
3. The reactor core - masonry graphite blocks. Each block represents a block of graphite 25h25h60sm in which the cylindrical hole with the fuel. Units collected in 2488 pillars, which together with the technological channels constitute a cylinder with a diameter 11.7 m and a height of 7 m. The Rector is surrounded by a light guard, steel protective plates, as well vokrog rector of an annular water tanks, and all the gaps filled with sand. On the surface BMU protective tiles are made of heavy concrete in a steel shell, which serve as protection against ionizing radiation.
Technology channel - a tubular design, which houses fuel assemblies (FAs), washed by the coolant flow. Coolant (water) is supplied to each technological channel bottom to the lower water communication, steam and water mixture is drained from the top of the channel, then doing the drum-separators.
Fuel assembly is made up of 18 fuel elements (fuel rods), contained in the frame (pictured above left). Two assemblies arranged one above the other, collected on a central rod to form the fuel cartridge, which is installed in each fuel channel. Refueling is carried out on power with the help of unloading-loading machine (yellow contraption on the right), located in the central hall. One or two fuel channel can be overwhelmed every day.
4. Spent fuel is extremely radioactive and has the property of spontaneous combustion at significant temperatures, so after extracting it is stored in a cooling pond (located in the reactor hall) for 3-5 years and then, after reducing the residual heat is sent to storage or processing.
5. In the reactor hall of the background radiation is 1000 times above normal (106 Sv / h) so long to be there is not recommended.
Incidentally, before entering the Kursk radiation level is 11 mR / h, while the Red proschadi fonit 18 mR / h (safety standard - 25 mR / h). The premises Kursk measurements showed 4 mR / h (except for the reactor hall, of course). Altogether during the press tour, we got about 5 mSv, which corresponds to ~ 3-day norm. Although there is a big difference: to get a dose of 72 hours or 25 minutes, but in any case, this number is far from predelnodopustimogo as a single safe value, yes.
Kursk nuclear power plant was built on the same project as Chernobyl, but after the events of the construction of new reactors for this project was discontinued.
Photo. "Resident Evil", yeah
6. Then we headed to the turbine hall. It's Huge room (800 meters in length), in which the location of two turbine generators with a capacity of 500 MW each.
8. Kursk nuclear power plant - the single-station type: steam supplied to the turbine, is formed directly in the reactor at the boiling coolant passing through it. As the coolant used ordinary purified water circulating in a closed circuit. It consists of two parallel loops. Each loop is connected half of the fuel channels of the reactor (about 840 channels). The circulation of coolant in each loop by means of circulation pumps, three of them working, the fourth in reserve.
9. Water with a temperature of 270 C is pumped to the pressure manifold, and then distributing group collectors, feeding the process reactor channels. Steam-water mixture formed in the technological channels, is transmitted to the drum separators, where the separation of steam and water. From the cages of pairs sent to the turbine. To cool the exhaust steam in the turbine condenser uses water from the cooling reservoir.
Steam condensate, spent in the turbine, after mixing with the separated water in downcomer pipes back to the intake manifold of the main circulating pumps.
10. The room quite noisy, the whole staff goes to the ear protectors. We were given earplugs, but nobody did not use them.
A lot any different gizmos, like spinning, but you can not.
11. And it is a central control panel grids accident.
Kursk nuclear power plant produces electricity transmission lines to 9:
6 lines of 330 kV, 4 of which are designed to supply the region 2 to the north of Ukraine.
3 lines of 750 kV, of which 1 line for Oskol Elektrometallurgical plant, 1 line for the north-east of Ukraine and 1 line for the Bryansk region.
One line of 110 kV voltage leads to the plant and is used for backup power and their own needs.
5th unit is ready for 90%, but had not yet decided whether to enter into service - this can lead to devaluation of electricity in the region. Yes, and distrust of the reactors of this type raises many questions.
13. After the shield, we went to look at the control board power units.
14. The shield is huge: all lights blinking; pile levers and buttons. Total for the shield are 3 people, each of which simultaneously controls the 2500 (!) Indicators.
To get to work for a remote control, the engineer must pass more than 1000 hours of training, ie Training continues for several years.
A more remote engineers regularly check the psychologists, but then you never know what ...
15. In the reactor hall of the camera, but I think if anything, it is not much help.
17. By the end of the press tour we were shown a training center where we played for one of the many emergency scenarios. It was very interesting, sorry not on that video was recorded.
18. And this is a spare control panel. Lights and buttons are smaller, but all the basic manipulation of the reactor engineers will be able to make, yes. Notice the red button, sealed
In red are the album charts and drawings of the parts of the reactor, but I think that engineers know them by heart, because in the event of an accident of time looking at the scheme they will not.
19. In the room there are lamps with different color temperature, so the white balance so that's interesting.
20. Ah, to spin to.
21. On this tour in the indoor plant ended and we went to look around.
But before it all went next dosimetry and passport control.
I pass the last control. Appliances interesting: in the grooves are inserted hands / feet, the panel pulls all the way, and if everything is clean, the door opens.
If not open, then no luck ...
22. This cooling sprinklers. Water sprayed from the circuit in a water dust, rapidly cooled and fed back into the circuit.
23. In the basins of live hefty fish. It seems to me that the staff Kursk arrange these fountains, picnic tables and competitions mushkovikov-nahlystnikov, but none of it does not say.
24. If the station has shut off electricity and the reactor is no longer cool, it will come to the aid of a diesel generator. For each of the reactor is set to 6 pieces, with a total capacity of 78 MW.
Start time of the generator only 15 seconds. To this end, the temperature of liquid diesel is maintained at 50 degrees. I think it's not cheap, but on such systems is better not to save.
Work diesels should last for 8 hours, during which time you can connect the MOE and the military to restore power station. But for emergency situations at the station is stored a huge quantity of water that can be pumped into the reactor for passive cooling. At the rate of 40 cubic per hour, water is enough already for three days (!). At maximum flow reserve will end in 2 hours, but this time with the nearest fire station has brought an even larger amount, so that cooled everything okay.
25. Finally they showed us the warehouse containers with spent fuel. These containers are loaded on spetsvagony and drove off to a secret training ground. So it goes.
26. By the way, fed us a chic way, yes.
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